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Lent Words:The Tendencies by Google Trends
lent wordsor words exported from Japanese into foreign countries using an internet search engine. A numerical data of Google Trends can be downloaded; factor analysis was applied after putting the data in order, and the general tendencies of the maps were grasped. United States, Western Europe and South East Asia stood out as the area where
lent wordsare used much, but Latin America showed the tendency different from other countries as a state group. Data of Google Trends could elucidate global distribution of
ent wordswhich has been impossible in the past.
The Handbook of Collocation of Function Words in Japanese. Tokyo: Kuroshio Shuppan.
ni-oiteinstead of more colloquial
de.Chiebukuro and blogs are more towards spoken language. Furthermore, Chiebukuro has its own unique style. In CSJ corpus, monologues and dialogues showed different characteristics. Finally, we found that some similarity between monologues in CSJ and formal documents (such as white papers) in BCCWJ.
Okada Collection of SP recordingsreleased in May 2010, which is a digitalized version of SP recordings collected by Norio Okada, transcribed by linguists as part of the NINJAL Project
Exploring Variation in Contemporary Japanese: Multiple Approaches (project leader: Masao Aizawa). This book will induce not only research on Japanese as public speech in the early 20th century from a historical perspective but also research on politics, economy, and culture of the modern period from a new perspective.
unaccusative-intransitive(32% in type) and
objective(type = 27%).
Agentdid not appear much (type = 8%), although they are considered one of the prototypical deep cases of Ga.
Object (act-on)cases appear the most frequently in Wo (type = 80%) and they become more than 90% with
routecases did not appear at all (type = 0%)<, despite their semantic and grammatical uniqueness. The most frequently appearing deep cases of De were
others(type = 51%) and
means and material(type = 29%).
Placecases appeared only 11% though they are considered a prototypical deep case.
Limitation and Modificationis the deep case that most frequently appeared in No (type = 47%), while prototypical deep case
Possessiveis not frequent (type = 3%). Although the Web influences these results, they may nonetheless provide useful insights for the study of Japanese deep cases.
ridit analysiscommonly used in the field of medical statistics, and show that it is also useful for the analysis of linguistic count data. The ridit analysis is originally a statistical method for comparing among groups in a frequency table by means of the average ridit value. The average ridit is extremely easy to calculate and available for the statistical significance test. By applying the ridit analysis to the count data of some previous researches in Japanese linguistics, it is revealed that the analysis is applicable not only to the comparison among groups of qualitative or quantitative data but also to the quantification of each ordinal variable in a two-dimensional contingency table. The ridit analysis that is also regarded as one of the methods of exploratory data analysis (EDA) has a certain effectiveness in quantitative linguistic researches.
he key opened the door.between Japanese and Chinese by theory of collocation. After using correspondence analysis to evaluate example sentences gathered from corpus of Japanese and Chinese, it was found that
affectednessof verbs are the common factors in transitive sentences with inanimate subjects between Japanese and Chinese (confining nouns marked by accusative case to tangible things). What kind of collocation a verb makes with a noun is deeply involved with the character of the noun. For example, the type of natural nouns (autonomy), such as
wind, makes collocations with verbs which have strong affectedness to weak ones. By contrast, the type of plant nouns (autonomy), such as
tree, makes collocations only with verbs which have recursiveness. Finally, the most important difference between the two languages is that some types of nouns such as the natural ones (autonomy) make a large number of collocations with verbs of productivity like
The wind makes sounds.in Japanese, but this kind of collocations made by the same type of nouns rarely appear in Chinese.