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Vol. 30 No. l
(June, 2015)
Vol. 30 No. 2
(Sep., 2015)
Vol. 30 No. 3
(Dec., 2015)
VOl. 30 No. 4
(Mar., 2016)
VOl. 30 No. 5
(June, 2016)
Vol. 30 No. 6
(Sep., 2016)
Vol. 30 No. 7
(Dec., 2016)
Vol. 30 No. 8
(Mar., 2017)

Vol. 30 No. 1 (June 25, 2015)

  1. Classification:
    Report
    Author:
    TOKIMOTO Shingo
    Title:
    An experimental Description of Deictic and Nondeictic Usages of Japanese Indexicals, ko-, so-, and a-forms.
    Pages:
    1--13
    Keywords:
    indexicals, decision tree analysis, a-form for long-term memory.
    Abstract:
    This paper experimentally discusses the relationship between the deictic and the nondeictic usages of Japanese indexicals, namely, ko-, so-, and a-forms. Two hundred and sixteen Japanese native speakers were divided into three groups according to their differences in their deictic usages of the three indexicals. They were asked to make well-formedness judgments on various Japanese sentences including the three indexicals in nondeictic interpretations. A decision tree analysis was performed for these judgments with the three indexicals and the individual differences in the deictic usages as independent variables. As a result, the main effect of the three indexicals and the interaction between the three indexicals and the individual differences of the deictic usages were significant for ko- and a-forms. Further, the correlations between the judgments on the three nondeictic expressions varied in accordance with the individual differences in the deictic usages. These results suggest that some of the governing principles for the deictic and the nondeictic usages are common while some for the nondeictic usage vary according to the individual differences in the deictic usages.

  2. Classification:
    Report
    Author:
    YAMANAKA Nobuhiko, and MAO Aitao
    Title:
    Linguistics on Book Titles: Based on National Diet Library Search
    Pages:
    14--31
    Keywords:
    title of a book, naming, bestseller, main title, subtitle, kinds of characters, linguistic structure, modality, ANOVA, chi-square test
    Abstract:
    This paper analyzes data on the titles of Japanese books, gathered by means of National Diet Library Search. The books fall into two categories: ordinary books and bestsellers. As for the former, 2082 samples have been taken from eight areas in Nippon Decimal Classification for the years from 2003 through 2012. As for the latter, 400 titles have been obtained for the years from 1973 through 1982 and from 2003 through 2012. The objects and methods of analysis are common to both categories: we have separated main titles and subtitles, and for each of them we have examined the frequencies of several kinds of characters used, the linguistic structures of the titles, and the modalities in the titles. Further, we have considered the effects of the areas on the statistics regarding ordinary books and those of the periods on the statistics regarding bestsellers. Of statistical significance are the following: as for ordinary books, there are effects of the areas on the length of titles, the frequencies of the kinds of characters used, the linguistic structures of the titles, and the modalities in the titles, both for main titles and subtitles. As for bestsellers, there are effects of the periods on the length of titles and the modalities in the titles for main titles, and those on the frequencies of the kinds of characters used for subtitles. Lastly, taking wakaru as an example, we argue that different areas may have different reasons for using a particular expression as part of a book title.

  3. Classification:
    Tutorial
    Author:
    HAYASHI Naoki
    Title:
    Data Visualization (1): Making Basic Charts in Microsoft Excel (Part 1)
    Pages:
    33--48
    Keywords:
    Microsoft Excel, Bar chart, Column chart, Stacked bar chart
    Abstract:
    This paper is the first installment of a series of introductory essays on graph construction in Microsoft Excel. Focusing on bar graphs and column graphs, I use screenshots to show how to move from initial data output to optimizing display for black and white printing, and introduce additional options that may be used to emphasize key trends in the data.

Vol. 30 No.2 (Sep. 20, 2015)

  1. Classification:
    Paper
    Author:
    INOUE Fumio, and YANAGIMURA Yu
    Title:
    Country-wise Factor Analysis of Worldwide Distribution of Lent Words:The Tendencies by Google Trends
    Pages:
    73-97
    Keywords:
    lent word, loan word, factor analysis, Google Trends, geolinguistics
    Abstract:
    It is possible to draw world maps for lent words or words exported from Japanese into foreign countries using an internet search engine. A numerical data of Google Trends can be downloaded; factor analysis was applied after putting the data in order, and the general tendencies of the maps were grasped. United States, Western Europe and South East Asia stood out as the area where lent words are used much, but Latin America showed the tendency different from other countries as a state group. Data of Google Trends could elucidate global distribution of ent words which has been impossible in the past.

  2. Classification:
    BOOK REVIEW
    Author:
    LEE Jaeho
    Title:
    NAKAMATA Naoki (2014). The Handbook of Collocation of Function Words in Japanese. Tokyo: Kuroshio Shuppan.
    Pages:
    98-103

  3. Classification:
    Tutorial
    Author:
    HAYASHI Naoki
    Title:
    Data Visualization (2): Making Basic Charts in Microsoft Excel (Part 2)
    Pages:
    104-121
    Keywords:
    Microsoft Excel, line chart, scatter plot
    Abstract:
    Part two of a series of introductory essays on graph construction in Microsoft Excel, this paper explains how to create line graphs and scatter plots. As in the previous installment, I use screenshots to demonstrate how to move from initial data output to optimizing display for black and white printing, and introduce additional options that may be used to emphasize key trends in the data.

Vol. 30 No.3 (Dec., 20th, 2015)

  1. Classification:
    Paper B
    Author:
    MARUYAMA Naoko
    Title:
    Usage of Case Particles in Corpus: BCCWJ and CSJ
    Pages:
    127-145
    Keywords:
    case particles, written Japanese, spoken Japanese, BCCWJ, CSJ, correspondence analysis
    Abstract:
    We studied the use of case particles in modern Japanese, focusing on the difference between written and spoken languages as well as the difference among sub corpus (registers). As the data source, we used the core part (newspapers, magazines, books, white papers, Chiebukuro (Wisdom Q&A), blog) of Balanced Corpus of Contemporary Written Japanese (BCCWJ) and four monologues and four dialogues in the Corpus of Spoken Japanese (CSJ). In both BCCWJ and CSJ, 30% of all the words are particles, among which the case particles are the majority. In BCCWJ, white papers and Chiebukuro exhibit completely opposite results. White papers and newspapers have more written-language-style, formal expressions such as ni-oite instead of more colloquial de. Chiebukuro and blogs are more towards spoken language. Furthermore, Chiebukuro has its own unique style. In CSJ corpus, monologues and dialogues showed different characteristics. Finally, we found that some similarity between monologues in CSJ and formal documents (such as white papers) in BCCWJ.

  2. Classification:
    Resource
    Author:
    KANAZAWA Hiroyuki, AIZAWA Masao
    Title:
    The Transcribed Data of Recorded Speeches and Lectures by Eminent Politicians, Military Officers, Business People, and Cultural Figures in the Taisho and Early Showa Period
    Pages:
    146-154
    Keywords:
    Taisho Period, early Showa Period, politician, military officer, business people, cultural figures, speech, lecture, 78 rpm disc, transcription
    Abstract:
    The book contains transcribed data of recorded speeches and lectures by eminent politicians, military officers, business people, and cultural figures in the Taisho and early Showa period. They are based on Okada Collection of SP recordings released in May 2010, which is a digitalized version of SP recordings collected by Norio Okada, transcribed by linguists as part of the NINJAL Project Exploring Variation in Contemporary Japanese: Multiple Approaches (project leader: Masao Aizawa) . This book will induce not only research on Japanese as public speech in the early 20th century from a historical perspective but also research on politics, economy, and culture of the modern period from a new perspective.

  3. Classification:
    Tutorial
    Author:
    TANAKA Yusuke
    Title:
    Data Visualization (3): Constructing Graphs in Microsoft Word, Excel and PowerPoint
    Pages:
    155-174
    Keywords:
    Word, Excel, PowerPoint, comparison graph, 3-D graph, pyramid diagram, four-quadrant diagram, map, line chart, stacked bar chart, procedure figure, chronology
    Abstract:
    In this tutorial paper, I give several examples of graph construction using Microsoft Word, Excel, and PowerPoint. In describing the process of constructing the graphs, I focus on the following contents: (1) data visualization materials, (2) visualization procedures, (3) graph construction methods and the points to note, (4) the conversion and insert of graphs, (5) the storage format and sending mode. Specifically, I handle the comparison graph of quantity and the breakdown of the data, the 3-D graph multiplying several data, the pyramid diagram that shows the structure, the four-quadrant diagram that shows the state, the map that shows the regional characteristics and distribution, the graph that shows the change of ratio, the graph that show the transition of amount, the graph that shows the change and background of multi-data, the graph that shows the procedures and flows, and the graph of chronologies.

Vol. 30 No.4 (Mar, 23rd, 2016)

  1. Classification:
    RAPER B
    Author:
    NAMBA Emi & TAMAOKA Katsuo
    Title:
    An Investigation of Collocational Patterns of Manner and Resultative Adverbials with Verbs Based on Indexes of Entropy and Redundancy
    Pages:
    195-209
    Keywords:
    manner and resultative adverbials, collocation pattern, entropy, redundancy, selectional restriction, canonical order
    Abstract:
    A recent newspaper corpus on Japanese verb phrase adverbials (Namba & Tamaoka, 2014) revealed that the canonical positions for manner and resultative adverbials are SOAdvV for resultative adverbials and SAdvOV and SOAdvV for manner adverbials. This difference of adverbial position is assumed to be derived from the strength of the selectional restriction between an adverbial and a verb. Since the adverbials have different positions, the selectional restriction for each adverbial type should be distinctly unique from each other. The current study investigated this claim by using a newspaper corpus to calculate type and token frequencies of the collocations by using a newspaper corpus to calculate type and token frequencies of the collocations of adverbial type with verbs and calculated two indexes of entropy and redundancy for each adverbial type. A cluster analysis revealed that while manner adverbials were likely to co-occur with various types of verbs found within a single cluster, resultative adverbials, on the other hand, were likely to occur with specific verb types classified in a separate cluster. From the collocation patterns of adverbials, manner adverbials were shown to have loose selectional restriction whereas resultative adverbials were strict.
  2. Classification:
    REVIEW
    Author:
    KINSUI Satoshi
    Title:
    OGINO Tsunao (2014). A Study on Japanese Language by Search Engines. Tokyo: Asakura Shoten.
    Pages:
    210-212
  3. Classification:
    REVIEW
    Author:
    KUJIRAOKA Satsuki
    Title:
    MAEKAWA Kikuo (ed.) (2013). An Introduction to the Corpus. Series of the Japanese Corpus, Vol.1. Tokyo: Asakura Shoten.
    Pages:
    213-215
  4. Classification:
    TUTORIAL
    Author:
    INOUE Fumio
    Title:
    Data Visualization (3): Application of Excel Scattergram to Graphs and Maps
    Pages:
    216-233
    Keywords:
    Excel, scattergram, labeling, XY Chart Labels Tutorial
    Abstract:
    Several techniques are discussed here with the idea that linguistic study can be promoted by visualization. Numerical data can be made visible by charts and maps. By this technique, the structure of the data is made easier to read, and new ideas are born. The inner structure of the data can be made clear by applying multivariate analysis technique, and once the structure becomes clear, simpler calculations can be used to indicate the inner structure. There are studies which aim to verify theories and hypotheses, but studies which make the obtained data talk for itself are also necessary. For this, both analysis techniques and representation (visualization) techniques are effective.
  5. Classification:
    OBITUARY
    Author:
    Editorial Committee
    Title:
    A Tribute to Professor Tatuo MIYAZIMA (1931-2015)
    Pages:
    234

    Classification:
    OBITUARY
    Author:
    ISHIWATA Toshio
    Title:
    Memories of Dr. Miyazima
    Pages:
    235-236

    Classification:
    OBITUARY
    Author:
    ISHII Masahiko
    Title:
    Reminiscences of the Great "Linguist" Professor Tatuo Miyazima
    Pages:
    237-239

    Classification:
    OBITUARY
    Author:
    IORI Isao
    Title:
    Memories of Professor Tatuo Miyazima
    Pages:
    240-242

    Classification:
    OBITUARY
    Author:
    YAMAZAKI Makoto
    Title:
    Bibliography of Tatuo Miyazima
    Pages:
    243-250

Vol. 30 No.5 (Jun, 20th, 2016)

  1. Classification:
    RAPER A
    Author:
    MABUCHI Yoko
    Title:
    Diachronic Variation in Orthography of Two-Character Sino-Japanese Words in Modern Japanese: A Corpus-based Study
    Pages:
    257-274
    Keywords:
    Sino-Japanese words, modern Japanese, variation in orthography, diachronic changes, morphologically annotated corpora
    Abstract:
    This study reveals the varieties of Sino-Japanese orthography as well as the elimination and consolidation of certain orthographies in contemporary usage of Japanese. Using morphologically annotated corpora of modern and contemporary Japanese, I conducted a survey and analysis of different orthographies of Sino-Japanese words. By examining the number of different orthographies and the usage rates of individual ones, the following three points became clear regarding 2,000 words used in the modern and contemporary eras:
    1. There are fewer orthographies used to write a word in the contemporary era than the modern era;
    2. Orthographies that disappeared in the contemporary era were used frequently in the modern era. This not only means that the general orthographies used in the modern era were eliminated, but also that the orthographic standards have changed; and
    3. The elimination and alteration of orthographies occurred with certain words and not others in the modern era because of an emphasis placed upon practicality and reasonability of language in the wake of modern school system and the rise of typography in publishing. In addition, the eliminations and shifts that occurred after the Showa era were greatly influenced by national language policies.
  2. Classification:
    Resource
    Author:
    HORI Keiko, LEE Jae-Ho, HASEBE Yoichiro
    Title:
    HAGOROMO: A Usage Database of Function Words in Japanese
    Pages:
    275-285
    Keywords:
    function words, web search engine, authentic usage, spoken language corpora, written language corpora
    Abstract:
    We have developed and released HAGOROMO, a usage database of function words in Japanese, aiming to support Japanese language teachers, especially non-native teachers overseas, and learners at the intermediate and advanced levels. The system allows users to search function words, which are essential for Japanese language education/learning, and access authentic example sentences extracted from spoken and written language corpora. It is currently available in two forms -- as a web-based system (available at http://jreadability.net/hagoromo-dev), and as a downloadable Microsoft Excel data file. The number of headwords is 1,848; these were collected with reference to five pieces of reference literature including the previous JLPT test content specifications. The example sentences were extracted from four spoken language corpora including Meidai Dialogue Corpus, and four other written language corpora such as CASTEL/J. The levels of difficulty of the headwords were determined by the subjective judgments of five Japanese language teachers, each with experience of more than ten years.
    Classification:
    Review
    Author:
    KITAGAWA Kazuhide
    Title:
    MIYAZIMA Tatuo; SUZUKI Tai; ISII Hisao; ABE Seiya. (eds.) (2014). Frequency Dictionary of Old Japanese with Semantic Indexes. Tokyo: Kasama Shoin.
    MIYAZIMA Tatuo. (ed.) (2015). Frequency Dictionary of Man'yoshu by Volume with Semantic Indexes. Tokyo: Kasama Shoin.
    Pages:
    286-291
  3. Classification:
    Tutorial
    Author:
    LEE Jae-Ho
    Title:
    Data Visualization (5): Through the Use of the SPSS Graph Function
    Pages:
    292-303
    Keywords:
    SPSS, histogram, boxplot, scatter plot, readability
    Abstract:
    This paper gives a description of data visualization by SPSS and specifically focuses on the graph drawing function. It deals with three graphs, which are believed to be fundamental in the quantitative study of language. They are the histogram, boxplot, and scatter plot. The outcome of the research on text difficulty of corpus data conducted by Lee, Hasebe, and Kubo (2016) is used as data. The data used is posted on the Web so we expect SPSS users to experiment with it.

Vol. 30 No.6 (Sep, 20th, 2016)

  1. Classification:
    Invited Paper (A) to the Special Issue
    Author:
    TANOMURA Tadaharu
    Title:
    The Concept, Types and Utility of Web Corpora: Web Corpora as a Source of Information for Etymological Studies
    Pages:
    326-343
    Keywords:
    Web corpus, diachronic corpus, modern Japanese and Chinese, etymology, tatiageru (transitivized form of the verb tatiagaru), densi/dianshi (Japanese/Chinese term for television)
    Abstract:
    The defining condition of a Web corpus will be that it is a huge amount of text data collected from the Internet. Although Websites such as Google Books, National Diet Library Digital Collections and newspaper archives do not satisfy the condition, they nevertheless cannot be clearly distinguished from typical Web corpora, and thus it may not be groundless to regard them as a type of Web corpus. This article, drawing upon two case studies, will demonstrate that we can easily enhance the level of the description of the history of Japanese as well as Chinese terms of the modern era with the help of information obtainable from those Websites.
  2. Classification:
    Paper (B) to the Special Issue
    Author:
    MATSUDA Makiko
    Title:
    A Corpus-Based Study of Deviation Frequencies in Japanese Deep Cases
    Pages:
    344-356
    Keywords:
    deep case, Japanese web n-gram corpus, Ga, Wo, De, No
    Abstract:
    Japanese linguists have proposed a variety of Japanese deep cases from the semantic perspective. However, few people have investigated the adequacy of these cases using corpus-based analyses. This study investigates the frequency of four particles (Ga, Wo, De, No) by annotating the deep cases of these particles using the Japanese web n-gram corpus (7 gram). Results indicate that the most frequently appearing deep cases of Ga are unaccusative-intransitive (32% in type) and objective (type = 27%). Agent did not appear much (type = 8%), although they are considered one of the prototypical deep cases of Ga. Object (act-on) cases appear the most frequently in Wo (type = 80%) and they become more than 90% with object (act-cause) cases. Starting point and route cases did not appear at all (type = 0%)<, despite their semantic and grammatical uniqueness. The most frequently appearing deep cases of De were others (type = 51%) and means and material (type = 29%). Place cases appeared only 11% though they are considered a prototypical deep case. Limitation and Modification is the deep case that most frequently appeared in No (type = 47%), while prototypical deep case Possessive is not frequent (type = 3%). Although the Web influences these results, they may nonetheless provide useful insights for the study of Japanese deep cases.
  3. Classification:
    RESOURCE
    Author:
    ISHII Masahiko
    Title:
    Ridit Analysis: Its Application to Linguistic Count Data
    Pages:
    357-377
    Keywords:
    ridit analysis, average ridit, quantification, Likert scaling method, reciprocal averaging method, ploratory data analysis
    Abstract:
    In this essay, I introduce ridit analysis commonly used in the field of medical statistics, and show that it is also useful for the analysis of linguistic count data. The ridit analysis is originally a statistical method for comparing among groups in a frequency table by means of the average ridit value. The average ridit is extremely easy to calculate and available for the statistical significance test. By applying the ridit analysis to the count data of some previous researches in Japanese linguistics, it is revealed that the analysis is applicable not only to the comparison among groups of qualitative or quantitative data but also to the quantification of each ordinal variable in a two-dimensional contingency table. The ridit analysis that is also regarded as one of the methods of exploratory data analysis (EDA) has a certain effectiveness in quantitative linguistic researches.
  4. Classification:
    TUTORIAL
    Author:
    HAYASHI Naoki
    Title:
    Data Visualization (5): Making Dendrogram in R statistics
    Pages:
    378-390
    Keywords:
    R statistics, cluster analysis, dendrogram
    Abstract:
    In this paper, I describe how to create a graph using the statistical software R. When creating a graph, rather than simply pasting the initial output, we alternately list commands to add various changes so that we are able to plot the final output or results. To explain this process, I use a dendrogram. The dendrogram describes how various kinds of information from the initial output can be changed from the command line. It also explains the method of plotting the output or resultant graph onto a Word document. Finally, I also provide a list of points to note when creating a chart in R.

Vol. 30 No.7 (Dec, 20th, 2016)

  1. Classification:
    RAPER A
    Author:
    MA Tzu-Hsuan
    Title:
    A Contrastive Study of Japanese and Chinese in Transitive Sentences with Inanimate Subjects by Using Theory of Collocation: An Investigation of Factors by Using Correspondence Analysis
    Pages:
    395-416
    Keywords:
    transitive sentence with inanimate subjects, theory of collocation, correspondence analysis, BCCWJ, SINICA, recursiveness, affectedness, heteronomy, contrastive study of Japanese and Chinese
    Abstract:
    This paper attempts to compare the differences of transitive sentences with inanimate subjects such as he key opened the door. between Japanese and Chinese by theory of collocation. After using correspondence analysis to evaluate example sentences gathered from corpus of Japanese and Chinese, it was found that recursiveness and affectedness of verbs are the common factors in transitive sentences with inanimate subjects between Japanese and Chinese (confining nouns marked by accusative case to tangible things). What kind of collocation a verb makes with a noun is deeply involved with the character of the noun. For example, the type of natural nouns (autonomy), such as wind, makes collocations with verbs which have strong affectedness to weak ones. By contrast, the type of plant nouns (autonomy), such as tree, makes collocations only with verbs which have recursiveness. Finally, the most important difference between the two languages is that some types of nouns such as the natural ones (autonomy) make a large number of collocations with verbs of productivity like The wind makes sounds. in Japanese, but this kind of collocations made by the same type of nouns rarely appear in Chinese.
  2. Classification:
    Note
    Author:
    NAKAMATA Naoki
    Title:
    Meaning Classification and the Productivity of -teiru
    Pages:
    417-426
    Keywords:
    productivity index, standardized TTR, BCCWJ, list of verbs and the meaning of their -teiru forms, sequence of acquisition
    Abstract:
    This article provides an improved method of calculating productivity index in order to calculate the productivity of each usage of polysemous or multifunctional words. The new method utilizes the standardized TTR, which strongly correlates with the index previously proposed. This case study classifies 20,000 examples of the aspect marker -teiru into four meaning groups: continuation, result, experience, and state. The productivity of each group is then calculated, resulting in a value decrease in the same sequence. This result also matches previous studies of the acquisition of -teiru. Furthermore, as a byproduct of this study, a list showing which meaning a verb tends to have was created. Most verbs tend to have one of four meanings.
  3. Classification:
    Book Review
    Author:
    KUJIRAI Ayaki
    Title:
    YAMAZAKI Makoto (ed.) (2014). Corpus of Written Japanese: its Design and Structure. Series of the Japanese Corpus, Vol.2. Tokyo: Asakura Shoten
    Pages:
    427-433
  4. Classification:
    Tutorial
    Author:
    SHIBASAKI Hideko
    Title:
    Data Visualization (6): Effective Graphs Constructed by the Combination of Software Tools
    Pages:
    434-449
    Keywords:
    APA, Cluster Analysis, SEM, Amos, Decision Trees
    Abstract:
    In this series, several techniques using Word, Excel, SPSS, and Power Point to construct graphics have been discussed. However, the direct outputs of some software tools are not accepted by some international journals and some of them are technically impossible to be attached to papers.For this solution, some techniques were introduced in this paper as follows: (1) how to construct tables by Excel, (2) more effectively represented cluster analysis results in Excel, (3) how to draw graphics of analysis results of SPSS Amos by using Word, and (4) how to express analysis results of SPSS Decision Trees in Excel.
  5. Classification:
    Conference Report
    Author:
    SANADA Haruko
    Title:
    QUALICO2016
    Pages:
    450-453
  6. Classification:
    Guest Lecture
    Author:
    Reinhard Koehler
    Title:
    Quantitative Linguistics in Europe: Principles of the Philosophy of Science as Applied to Linguistics [Japanese translated version]
    Pages:
    466-470
    Keywords:
    Quantitative Linguistics, Philosophy of Science, Europe, Synergetic Linguistics, self-organization in language
  7. Classification:
    Guest Lecture
    Author:
    Reinhard Koehler
    Title:
    Quantitative Linguistics in Europe: Principles of the Philosophy of Science as Applied to Linguistics [original English version]
    Pages:
    471-475
    Keywords:
    Quantitative Linguistics, Philosophy of Science, Europe, Synergetic Linguistics, self-organization in language

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