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Our research is useful because (i) the proposed system can urge users to learn normative rules which have higher validity (i.e., the importance of learning) prior to other rules, where excessively strict judgments are avoided by determining the thresholds appropriately; and (ii) rules with degrees of validity are useful quantitative data for researching and teaching honorific Japanese linguistics.
X-teki, the choice of aru/iru as verbs in existential sentences with a human subject, the co-occurrence relations between the adverbs zenzen/mattaku and negative morphemes, the choice of iru/oru as auxiliary verbs, and the preservation of the archaic form masuru.
kotogadekiruafter the Meiji period.
First, I counted the
kotogadekiru that had been used in the selected fourteen literary works. And then I analyzed the expective value's deviation that were calculated by the incidence rate and the expected value of the total usage rate.
The research indicated that there was a gradual decrease in the usage
This paper presents results of a quantitative diachronic analysis of how abbreviations are used in modern written Japanese.
Asahi Newspaper Corpus texts (23 years) were used to observe quantitative relations between abbreviations and original long words. As a result, 4 types of relations (tendencies) were found.
The above examples demonstrate peculiarities of abbreviation use in newspaper register. In some cases abbreviations like
risutora show similar tendencies as in colloquial usage, while low usage ratio of
keitai reflects tendencies usually seen in written language. At the same time,
kombini reveals peculiarities of language use in different sections of newspaper (
Opinion etc). Changes in usage frequency of
to:shin are relevant to topicality degree of their referents.
We managed to examine only 4 types of relations. This research requires more abbreviations to be analyzed in order for the abbreviation use typology to be approved.
Realisierung der valenzbestimmten Korrelate des Deutschen. K. Fischer, E. Fobbe, S. Schierholz (Hrsg.)
Valenz und Deutsch als Fremdsprache
This paper discusses the meaning of the Japanese word ingin-burei
politely insolent), specifically what its prototype is and whether
it is understood differently by people with different attributes. We
formulated a prototype for ingin-burei, consisting of three elements: a
high degree of formality, a low degree of directness, and a low degree
of agreeableness. Based on examples from corpora, we assumed five types
We administered two surveys, first to undergraduates, second to graduate students and professors. In the first survey, hypothetical situations which described speech acts embodying combinations of these three elements were presented to subjects, to be judged on the degree to which the character in the situation could be said to be formal, direct, and agreeable. In the second, the same situations were presented to be judged on the degree to which the character could be said to be ingin-burei. The results were analyzed as to the effects of types of ingin-burei and those of attributes of the subjects. In both surveys, the prototype theory of ingin-burei was confirmed. Further, parts of the results were examined to find the correlation between the surveys.
Lastly, we point out some problems caused by ingin-burei to politeness theory.
It is recognized that frequency of Katakana representation is increasing in newspapers or magazines in recent years, but few systematic or quantitative analysis has been reported regarding the word representation, so far. Based on a newlycompiled large-scale Japanese corpus (BCCWJ), we perform statistical analysis of Katakana representation both for Japanese native words and the words imported from classical Chinese. The analysis shows that the tendency of Katakana representation largely depends on the word itself, and therefore the tendency can be considered as useful information that should be described in dictionaries. We also show that frequency of Katakana representation for each word exhibits a specific pattern in terms of source types, such as newspapers, magazines, and books, as well as the word types, such as onomatopoeia, mimesis, and word commonness.
the most important phenomenon of Japanese loanwordsis concluded in this study after mining high-occurrence words, widely-used words hidden in Taiwanese literatures.
The data used in this analysis is the
Publication Sub-corpus and the
Library Sub-corpus from the
Balanced Corpus of Contemporary Written Japanese (Monitor Exhibition Data 2009).
As a result of the analysis, it is found that the percentage of repeated nouns in the data occupies between four and sixty one percent of a text, and the average of repeated nouns is approximately twenty five percent.
These results show that most of the repeated nouns may not be used in a text. At the same time, even if a lot of repeated nouns are used in a text, nearly half of all nouns are new.
In addition, the majority of the texts with a low quantity of repeated nouns are written in first person. Likewise, texts with a large quantity of repeated nouns,mainly consist of legal documents and manuals concerning law.
The results of the analysis classify the accents in Tokyo's
northeast region into 4 groups,
Saitama Distinctive Accent Speakers,
Quasi-Saitama Distinctive Accent Speakers,
Language/Tokyo Central Region Accent Speakers and
Language/Tokyo Central Region Accent Speakers. Furthermore, in regards
to the division of the groups, I found important the conditions under
which the following three characteristics manifested: 1) Standardized
Language/Tokyo Central Region Accent types, 2) Formal variation, 3)
Saitama Distinctive Accent types.
Based on the above, I argue that the process of change for accents
in Tokyo$B!G(Bs northeast region consists of movement towards the
Standardized Language/Tokyo Central Region Accent. In this process,
accents move from
aitama Distinctive Accent Speakers→
Saitama Distinct Accent Speakers →
Tokyo Central Region Accent Speakers→
Central Region Accent Speakers. Also, I argue that standardization, or
movement towards Tokyo Central Region Accent, is finalized by
in short phrases of types IV and V from the LHL accent pattern (-2
accent pattern) characteristic of Tokyo Northeastern Accent to the HLL
accent pattern (1 accent pattern) of the Standardized Language/Tokyo
Central Region Accent and
the disappearance of formal variation.
In the present study, motivated by Sasaki$B!G(Bs suggestion, we examined the structure of dependency trees and checked whether those models could explain the obtained structure of dependency trees. To do that, we used Kyoto University Text Corpus (33,082 sentences) which includes the information of dependency relations among segments.
As a result, we found that the structure of the dependency trees did not accord with the expectation of multiplicative nor additive stochastic process.
novelscover the majority of the texts, followed by
tanka and haiku--- of these, more than 70% are to be the texts also found in Japanese high school kokugo textbooks. As for the periods when the texts were written, it became clear that texts published from the 1970's to the 1990's represent more than 50% of the total; moreover, it is also discovered that the older the text, the higher the probability that it is also found in kokugo textbooks. As far as the themes are concerned,
literaturecovers 62.7% of the total. Therefore, it became evident that Japanese language textbooks used at Chinese universities have a dule imbalance with respect to the themes (
literature) and the styles (
novels) of the texts. Based on the above, in order to ensure the selection of a wide variety of texts, it is difficult to solve this problem if one does not also take the resemblance of themes into consideration, even if the matter of the resemblance in style which has been pointed out by previous researches is addressed to widen the variety. It is necessary to first grasp the dual imbalance and then to make a selection of texts that takes the balance of themes into consideration.