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This paper presents the results of a sociolinguistic investigation carried out in Hong Kong and South China to investigate code-switching and language consciousness among the people of these regions, and the data shows clear regional differences in the Functions of the Standard Chinese.
The following differences are observed.
The author describes that these positions of adnominal constituents are effective in analyzing lexical semantics.
The main purpose of this paper is to illustrate, based on empirical data, the existing relations between the changes in linguistic politeness and the changes in the society by investigating the changes and the declining process of the linguistic politeness in Chinese from the 14th century to the 90's of the 20th century, and the historical changes in the Chinese society.
First, data are collected from thirty novels written in the past seven hundred years since the 14th century and all the polite expressions (including the Appreciative Words and the Depreciative Words) employed in the dialogues in the novels are enumerated and the changes and decline are analysed. Then, the analyses are made on the process of the changes both in Chinese social structures and the ideology within the past seven hundred years. Finally by comparing the two, the paper reveals the three different phases of the linguistic politeness in its decline and also reveals the relationship between the linguistic politeness and the social changes.
The three phases of the decline and the extinction of the linguistic politeness:
Of the 129 kanji searched for, examples were found for 34 characters, showing the value of electronic corpora as sources for studying the usage of low-frequency characters. However, a comparison of the characters found on the CD-ROM with their appearance in the printed newspaper showed many discrepancies between the character forms appearing in the two media.
Further, instances were identified in which characters of doubtful authenticity defined in JIS X0208 were substituted for standard characters which they resemble.
This study demonstrates the utility of text data available on CD-ROM, but indicates ways in which it does not reflect the printed form of the data, or standard usage.
In `monogatari', which had started as `Writing in the style of speaking,' differences in the style of description between conversational statements and narrative statements are not so big. We have made analysis of how these differences can be seen in case of Genji-Monogatari, with main emphasis on `auxiliary verbs.'
In case of Genji-monogatari, the differences in the usage frequency between the conversational statements and narrative statements can be found in the use of auxiliary verbs and verbs. More auxiliary verbs are used in conversational statements than in narrative statements through all the Volumes, and there are differences in the kinds of auxiliary verbs are used in conversational statements than in narrative statements through all the volumes, and there are differences in the kinds of auxiliary verbs to be used with high frequency between thsee two statements.
In case of `conversational statements,' the order of usage frequency can be found as `mu', `zu', `ki' and `bsei' (from higher to lower), most of which refer to the expression of feelings or emotions. This order can be found as `tari', `zu', `ri' and `keri' in `narrative statements', most of which refer to the expression of statements or explanaitons.
The dictionary links those synonyms to each other with so-called `see' reference. In this paper, the term which is referred to is called `main term', and the other `synonymous term'. It si assumed that the main term is more popular and cominant over synonymous term. And what kind of term is likely to be the main term (or synonynmous term) is examined from two points of view, i.e. the number of mora (phonetic word length of Japanese) and origins of words or `gosyu' (Chinese origined, Western-language origined, original Japanese, and their mixture). The results are
The occurrence of kara in the temorau construction is generally understood to represent the transference of some concrete or abstract thing(s) from agent to beneficiary. As a result of the research mentioned above, this paper, however, will reveal that there are two parameters instead of one in the choice of kara as case marker for the agent in the temorau benefactive construction.
One of these parameters is determined by the case frame of the embedded verb, i.e. when the verb does not require the participant to become the beneficiary in the temorau construction in either the ni or o case, then kara is not applicable. The other parameter concerns the transference of some concrete or abstract thing(s) between agent and beneficiary, i.e. when the verb requires the beneficiary in its case frame, kara can be used, but only when such a transference exists, otherwise it cannot be used.
Three more subsidiary conditions, i.e. plurality of the agent, causativity of the temorau auxiliary verb, and the directness of the construction, are observed to function to accept kara case.