Japanese version
 Vol. 21 No. l (June, 1997) Vol. 21 No. 2 (Sep., 1997) Vol. 21 No. 3 (Dec., 1997) Vol. 21 No. 4 (Mar., 1998) Vol. 21 No. 5 (June, 1998) Vol. 21 No. 6 (Sep., 1998) Vol. 21 No. 7 (Dec., 1998) Vol. 21 No. 8 (Mar., 1999)

## Vol. 21 No. 1 (Jun. 17, 1997)

1. Classification:
Report
Author:
AOYAMA Hiroshi
Title:
Epistemic Qualifiers and Degrees of Certainty
Pages:
1-10
Descriptors:
epistemic qualifier; degree of certainty; Fuzzy theory; membership function
Abstract:
Japanese expressions like shitteiru, osoraku, and so on are used to express ones judgment of the truth of a proposition. In this paper, we call such expressions epistemic qualifiers and study them statistically. We asked college students to evaluate the degree of certainty for epistemic qualifiers. Using the fuzzy theory, we determined the membership functions for them and classified them into a few groups. We studied epistemic qualifiers in both affirmative and negative sentences, and found a number of regularities they have.

2. Classification:
Report
Author:
CHEN Yuhua
Title:
The Regional Differences in Functions of the Standard Chinese in Hong Kong and South China
Pages:
11-17
Descriptors:
pre-transition Hong Kong; South China; sociolinguistic investigation; code-switching; language consciousness; the Functions of the Standard Chinese; regional differences
Abstract:

It has been fourty years since the Standard Chinese had been established and disseminated in China. The language standardization of China is still in progress, and Hong Kong is now going to be affiliated into it. However, the degree of language standardization is not necessarily homogeneous across regional areas, due to a variety of social, economic and linguistic conditions, and the direction of the language standardization in Hong Kong is worthy of notice. It is an important to grasp the degree of language standardization of Hong Kong immediately prior to reversion to Chinese rule in order to make clear the process of language standardization in the future.

This paper presents the results of a sociolinguistic investigation carried out in Hong Kong and South China to investigate code-switching and language consciousness among the people of these regions, and the data shows clear regional differences in the Functions of the Standard Chinese.

3. Classification:
Report
Author:
NAKAI Yukihiko
Title:
Individual Differences of Word-Accent in the Kyoto Dialect
Pages:
18-29
Descriptors:
Kyoto Accent; Accent Dictionary; Individual Difference of Word-Accent
Abstract:

This paper clarifies individual differences of word-accent in the Kyoto Dialect using the data including 42,879 words.

The following differences are observed.

1. Average degrees of conformity among 16 speakers and two dictionaries are: 82% (1 - 4 mora nouns), 77% (5 - 6 mora nouns), and 89% (basic nouns).
2. Generational and aerial differences are observed.
3. Word-accents of longer words tend to agree less than those of shorter words.
4. Zenkoku Akusento Jiten lists the accent of the younger generation. Nihon Kokugo Diajiten lists somewhat peculiar accent.

## Vol. 21 No. 2 (Sep. 10, 1997)

1. Classification:
Paper
Author:
KANZAKI Kyoko
Title:
Pages:
53-68
Descriptors:
Abstract:
This paper provides an overview of lexical semantic relations between adnominal constituents and their head nouns. The author discusses several types of the lexical semantic relations derived from positions of adnominal constituents, an attributive position and a predicative position. The author describes that adnominal constituents which appear only in an attributive position express a similar meanings of their head nouns, states of their head nouns, concrete contents of their head nouns, and so on. On the other hand, when adnominal constituents are able to appear both in an attributive position and in a predicative position, they express unique inherent attributes of their head nouns or one of the major attributes of the head nouns.

The author describes that these positions of adnominal constituents are effective in analyzing lexical semantics.

2. Classification:
Report
Author:
IBRAHIM Walid, NAKANO Hiroshi
Title:
On The Vocabulary of Popular songs in Egypt
Pages:
69-78
Descriptors:
Popular Egyptian songs; vocabulary; emotions; love
Abstract:
The aim of this paper is to investigate the vocabulary of popular Egyptian songs and to clarify their distinctive cultural and linguistic features. We have examined 40 popular Egyptian songs, all of which were selected as Egypt's best songs for 1995. Of these forty songs, most are love songs. The number of word tokens is 3149 (excluding prepositions, particles, and so on). The number of word types is 903. From our study, we conclude that the following characteristics are typical of these Egyptian songs when in contrast with popular Japanese songs:
• Very frequent usage of verbs and nouns
• Wide usage of metaphorical expressions
• A wealth of vocabulary expressing love
• Many words expressing sorrow, sadness, loneliness more than any other kind of emotion.

3. Classification:
Review
Author:
SATAKE Hideo
Title:
The Computation of Style'' by Anthony Kenny
Pages:
79-82

4. Classification:
Review
Author:
SATAKE Hideo
Title:
Pasokon ni yoru Nihongo-kenkyu^-ho^ Nyu^mon; Goi to Mozi''(Personal Computer Aided Japanese Language Research; A Guide to Program Library MCL)by NAKANO Hiroshi
Pages:
79-82

## Vol. 21 No. 3 (Dec. 15, 1997)

1. Classification:
Paper
Author:
PENG Guoyue
Title:
The Declining Process of the Linguistic Politeness System in Chinese; The Diachronic Resonance of Language and Society
Pages:
85-100
Descriptors:
Chinese politeness; cohesion; diachronic changes; resonance; social values; other-directed
Abstract:
Early modern Chinese possesses a complete system of linguistic politeness, but this system no longer exists in contemporary Chinese. The linguistic politeness reflects the social relationships of the people and therefore its decline reflects the changes in the social structure and the ideology.

The main purpose of this paper is to illustrate, based on empirical data, the existing relations between the changes in linguistic politeness and the changes in the society by investigating the changes and the declining process of the linguistic politeness in Chinese from the 14th century to the 90's of the 20th century, and the historical changes in the Chinese society.

First, data are collected from thirty novels written in the past seven hundred years since the 14th century and all the polite expressions (including the Appreciative Words and the Depreciative Words) employed in the dialogues in the novels are enumerated and the changes and decline are analysed. Then, the analyses are made on the process of the changes both in Chinese social structures and the ideology within the past seven hundred years. Finally by comparing the two, the paper reveals the three different phases of the linguistic politeness in its decline and also reveals the relationship between the linguistic politeness and the social changes.

The three phases of the decline and the extinction of the linguistic politeness:

1. The period of flourish: the 14th century -- the end of the 19th century. As shown in table 7, in this period the linguistic politeness in Chinese were employed widely and no much difference are found in different works in terms of historical period. This period covers three dynasties: the Yuan, the Ming and the Ching dynasty. At that time, the traditional Confucianism dominated the social and ethical values of the Chinese society. The linguistic politeness reflects the conformity with the doctrine of the Confucianism.
2. The period of decline: the first half of the 20th century. In this period, the declining tendency in the use of the linguistic politeness is evident and this coincides with the Republic of China. This period witnesses the Xinhai Revolution, the New Cultural Movement and the May 4 Democratic Movement, and China had undergone great changes both in social structure and in ethical value. This change can be seen in Table 7 that the linguistic politenesses also subject to the social changes in this period.
3. The period of extinction: the second half of the 20th century. The linguistic politeness in Chinese as a system no longer exists. The Appreciative Words except (gui - ) are no longer employed and the Depreciative Words all but have disappeared. This coincides with the People's Republic of China after the success of the communist revolution in China.
This paper based on empirical data demonstrates the diachronical process of the decline of the linguistic politeness in Chinese and reveals the diachronical resonance between the social changes and the changes in linguistic politeness.

2. Classification:
Report
Author:
TANAKA Yukari
Title:
Changes in Multivariate Data Analysis in the Japanese Language Studies
Pages:
101-109
Descriptors:
Multivariate Data Analysis; "Mathematical Linguistics"; "Studies in the Japanese Language"; "Journal of the Linguistic Society of Japan"; Dialectological Circle of Japan
Abstract:
The purpose of this paper is to investigate the changes in the use of Multivariate Data Analysis in the Japanese Language studies. In particular, I will study how Multivariate Data Analysis has been used in the papers published from 1960 to 1997 (1974 papers in total). I found that:
1. Five percent of the papers published after 1975 employ Multivariate Data Analysis in research.
2. The papers may be classified into two period: "special period" and "general period". And these two periods are divided by the mid 1980s.
3. During the "general period", the number of papers employing Multivariate Data Analysis in dialect studies increases dramatically.
4. There is a change in the research method after 1980. Before 1980, Factor Analysis is popular while Hayashi's Quantification Methods III becomes popular after 1980.
5. The majority of the writers are sociolinguists.
6. A large number of the papers are shared by the same authors.

3. Classification:
Note
Author:
KOBAYASHI Hideki
Title:
Semantic Distribution of Sino-Japanese Verbal Noun with Intransitive and Transitive Use
Pages:
110-114

4. Classification:
Miscellaneous
Title:
Proceedings of the 41st Annual Meeting
Pages:
115-128

5. Classification:
Miscellaneous
Title:
Descriptors and Abstracts
Pages:
129

## Vol. 21 No. 4 (Mar. 15, 1998)

1. Classification:
Paper
Author:
SAITO Hidenori(The National Language Research Institute)
Title:
A Proposal on Codification of Kanji Attribute Information
Pages:
131 - 144
Descriptors:
inverted list; Kanji database; Kanji attribute information; codification of attribute information; client server system
Abstract:
The Japanese standard JIS X0208 on Kanji codes for information exchange adopted two different criteria for the classification and codification by dividing the standard in two parts. One part is based either on ON-YOMI (the chinese reading) or on KUN-YOMI (the Japanese reading) of the Kanji, suitably, in alphabetic order, while the other part is based on the radicals in radical order. However, the said standard does not specify the readings and the radicals it has used. The attributes like readings and radicals form important information that is required to decide the matching order and the character order. This information needs to be clearly defined. In this paper, the author tried to attach the attribute information to the Kanji database and obtained an inverted list from here, which is further used to carry out the codification. As a consequence, it became possible to
1. define and manage the attribute information and codes with the help of Kanji database,
2. standardize the processing of data and attribute information through bifurcated management,
3. provide the country classification function in the case of multilingual Kanji database, and
4. carry out the optimal distribution of Kanji database to the client server system.
Besides, it can be said that the codification of attribute information can be applied to the variants of Kanji also.

2. Classification:
Paper
Authors:
SASAHARA Hiroyuki, YOKOYAMA Shoichi (The National Language Research Institute), NOZAKI Hironari(Nagoya City University), and YONEDA Junko (The National Language Research Institute)
Title:
Phantom Characters'' and the Value of Electronic Corpora
Pages:
145 - 161
Descriptors:
phantom characters; JIS corporate-defined characters; electronic media; newspaper corpora
Abstract:
Electronic corpora are now widely used in language research, but their value as sources of textual data has not been critically examined. This study examines the use of kanji (Chinese-style characters) that are defined in the JIS X0208 standard used in personal computers, but are not listed in major kanji dictionaries. The corpus used was the 1993 CD-ROM database of articles from Asahi shimbun, a major Japanese newspaper.

Of the 129 kanji searched for, examples were found for 34 characters, showing the value of electronic corpora as sources for studying the usage of low-frequency characters. However, a comparison of the characters found on the CD-ROM with their appearance in the printed newspaper showed many discrepancies between the character forms appearing in the two media.

Further, instances were identified in which characters of doubtful authenticity defined in JIS X0208 were substituted for standard characters which they resemble.

This study demonstrates the utility of text data available on CD-ROM, but indicates ways in which it does not reflect the printed form of the data, or standard usage.

3. Classification:
Report
Author: MURAI Jun'ichiro (University of Tokyo)
Title:
The effects of personal relationships on perceived deceptiveness of verbal messages
Pages:
162-169
Descriptors:
Abstract:
The present study examined the effects of personal relationships on perceived deceptiveness of verbal messages. Subjects were assigned to one of three groups. The first group was instructed to recall one of their acquaintances, and to reate deceptiveness of nine verbal messages printed on a questionnaire. The second group was instructed to recall one of their opposite-sex friends to whom they had romantic feelings, and the third groups was instructed to recall one of their close friends. The latter two groups also rated decepriveness of the same messages as the first group did. As a result of the questionnaire administered to 125 university students, the subjects in the close friend group perceived the lowest deceptiveness among the three groups in all the messages.

4. Classification:
Miscellaneous
Title:
Descriptors and Abstracts
Pages:
172

## Vol. 21 No. 5 (Jun. 15, 1998)

1. Classification:
Paper
Author:
UMEDA Michio(Osaka Electro-Communication University)
Title:
Quantitative Analysis of Japanese Words Determined with the Help of the Informationof Kanji Radicals
Pages:
175 - 192
Descriptors:
Kanji radicals; word dictionary; word estimation; character determination; character recognition
Abstract:
This paper discusses how many words can be estimated and how many characters can be determined by utilizing the Japanese word dictionary supposing only radical structures of Kanji characters are correctly recognized. Two evaluation measures such as a word determination rate and a dterminable character rate are defined to quantitatively evaluate some characteristics of each Kanji character as a Japanese word component. First, a word determination rate is calcurated for Kanji character sets of common radical parts. This rate is nearly equal to that for candidate characters selected at random Next, this rate is calcurated for the set of Kanji characters composed of left- and right-hand radicals. It is shown that about 72% of Kanji charcters contained in Japanese words can be correctly estimated only from the structure of left-hand radicals, and about 95% can be determined from that of right-hand radicals.

2. Classification:
Paper
Authors:
UEDA Hideyo(Japan Classic Literature Research Institute), MURAKAMI Masakatsu(The institute of Statistical Mathematics), FUJITA Mari(Institute Toden Academy)
Title:
A Quantitative Analysis of Genji-Monogatari in Its Conversational and Narrative Statements; with Focus on the Usage of the Auxiliary Verbs
Pages:
193 - 205
Descriptors:
conversational statements; narrative statements; auxiliary verbs; verbs
Abstract:
Studies have been made on narrative statements, and conversational statements in not only Genji-monogatari but also in monogatari' (story-telling) of Heian Period to Kamakura-Muromachi Period.

In monogatari', which had started as Writing in the style of speaking,' differences in the style of description between conversational statements and narrative statements are not so big. We have made analysis of how these differences can be seen in case of Genji-Monogatari, with main emphasis on auxiliary verbs.'

In case of Genji-monogatari, the differences in the usage frequency between the conversational statements and narrative statements can be found in the use of auxiliary verbs and verbs. More auxiliary verbs are used in conversational statements than in narrative statements through all the Volumes, and there are differences in the kinds of auxiliary verbs are used in conversational statements than in narrative statements through all the volumes, and there are differences in the kinds of auxiliary verbs to be used with high frequency between thsee two statements.

In case of conversational statements,' the order of usage frequency can be found as mu', zu', ki' and bsei' (from higher to lower), most of which refer to the expression of feelings or emotions. This order can be found as tari', zu', ri' and keri' in narrative statements', most of which refer to the expression of statements or explanaitons.

3. Classification:
Report
Author:
TSUJI Keita (Graduate School of Education, The University of Tokyo)
Title:
The Conflict among Synonyms in Technical Treminology and Their Numbers of Mora and Origins of Words
Pages:
206 - 215
Descriptors:
synonym; medical terminology; mora; origin of word
Abstract:
The purpose of this paper is to clarify the types of terms which become popular and dominant among synonyms in technical terminology. 5402 pairs of medical synonyms are extracted from the entries of Nanzando's Medical Dictionary and used as data.

The dictionary links those synonyms to each other with so-called see' reference. In this paper, the term which is referred to is called main term', and the other synonymous term'. It si assumed that the main term is more popular and cominant over synonymous term. And what kind of term is likely to be the main term (or synonynmous term) is examined from two points of view, i.e. the number of mora (phonetic word length of Japanese) and origins of words or gosyu' (Chinese origined, Western-language origined, original Japanese, and their mixture). The results are

1. In the pair of synonyms, the term whose number of mora is smaller is likely to be the main term. The tendency becomes stronger as the number of mora of bigger one becomes bigger of the diffrence between them becomes bigger.
2. In the pair of synonyms one which is Western-langauge origined and the other of which is Chinese origined, the former is likely to be the main term. In the case of Chinese origined and original Japanese, the former is likely to be the main term. In addion, these tendencies become stronger when the numbers of mora of the formers are smaller than those of the latters.
Man's preference for labor-saving, style and the prevalence of English are discussed as the cause of these tendencies.

4. Classification:
Note
Author:
OGINO Tsunao
Title:
How Many Examples are Required in Language Research: a Proposal of 'Ratio Fluctuation Estimation Method'
Pages:
216 - 222
Descriptors:
number of examples; number of informants in questionnaire survey; raion

5. Classification:
Miscellaneous
Title:
Announcement for 42nd Annual Meeting
Pages:
223

6. Classification:
Miscellaneous
Title:
Accounts of 1996/1997 and Budget for 1997/1998
Pages:
223 - 224

## Vol. 21 No. 6 (Sep. 14, 1998)

1. Classification:
Paper
Author:
KAKEURA Kyo (National Center for Science Information Systems), TSUJI Keita (Graduate School of Education, University of Tokyo)
Title:
Some Characteristics of Mizutani's Projection Function and its Relation to Waring Distribution
Pages:
245 - 256
Descriptors:
word frequency distribution; Mizutani's formula; Waring distribution; Zipf's law
Abstract:
The projection function, introduced by Mizutani as an approximation to the word frequency distribution, takes the different form from the Zipf-type formulations by Zipf, Yule, Simon, Herdan, Muller, etc. in that the former is expressed as the relation between the relative token frequeuncy and the relative number of types. As a result, the Mizutani's formula has sometimes been used without clarifying its relationship with the Zipf-type distributions. In this paper, we clarify the basic relationship between the two, and examine the implicit meaning of the projection function.

2. Classification:
Report
Authors:
MURAI Jun'ichiro (University of Tokyo)
Title:
The Structure of Beliefs about Deceptive Messages
Pages:
257 - 267
Descriptors:
deceptiveness; verbal messages; beliefs
Abstract:
The present study examined the structure of beliefs about deceptive mssages, based on Information Manipulatin Theory. A questionnaire was administered to 102 university students. Subjects were instructed to recall the most typical situation in which a message from a person was felt to be deceptive, and to rate the charactersitics of the message using sixteen seven-point semantic differential scales. Factor analysis revealed two dimensions. The first factor contined items concerning manner and quantity. The second factor contained items concerning quality and relation. I labeled them How it is said'' and What is said,'' respectively. Subjects also rated the most typical situation involving their own deceptive message, and rated the characteristics of the message. As a result of factor analysis, two factors were obtained. The first factor contained items concerning manner, relation and quantity, and the second factor contained items concerning quality.

3. Classification:
Note
Author:
MISHIO Mariko (Graduate of Kyoto Tachibana Womens College in the class of 1966), MIYAJIMA Tatsuo (Kyoto Tachibana Womens College)
Title:
Change in the Rhythm of Popular Songs
Pages:
268 - 274
Descriptors:
popular song; rhythm; seven-and-five-syllable meter; seven-and-seven-syllable meter

4. Classification:
Note
Author:
ITO Masamitsu (The National Language Research Institute)
Title:
Text Composing System FUJIMURA''
Pages:
75 - 287
Descriptors:
random generation; second-order word approximation; 2-grams automatic pastiche; automatic composition; popular songs; Yumi Matsutoya; Yuming

## Vol. 21 No. 7 (Dec. 8, 1998)

1. Classification:
Paper
Author:
SASAHARA Hiroyuki, YOKOYAMA Shoichi
Title:
Pragmatics on Kanji-Variants Usage
Pages:
291 - 310
Descriptors:
Traditional forms of kanji; Revised forms of kanji; Joyo Kanji; Familiarity, Preference; Word processor; Cogonitive Psychology; Unification
Abstract:
In transcribing /hinoki/ in Kanji, which form do people prefer, ÛØ or É°? (Both ÛØ and É° mean cypress''.) This question is related to the pragmatics of usage of revised and traditional forms of kanji. We frame the following two hypotheses:
1. Considering the age of respondent's group (about 20 years old), the Japanese students will tend to prefer revised to traditional form.
2. They will show, however, a weak tendency to prefer traditional to revised form, when neither are questionnaire presented alternate forms (revosed and traditonal) of the same charater, with instruction kto choose the ones that the respondents prefer to usse.
The instruction of this survey follows: This is a survey which examines kanji usage. Below, you will see pairs of kanji, which are of different shapes, but which have the same meaning ... Please select the sahpe of kanji you use in writing a kanji by hand or typing it on a word processor. First of all, please look at each pair of kanji, comparing the two shapes carefully, and compare the degrees to which you would want to use each of them, and put a circle around one you prefer to use.''
The results are:
1. It turned out that there is a general tendency for the respondents to prefer revised to traditional forms whether or not the revised form is in the Joyo kanji list. Judging from the age of respondents' group ( about 20 years old), this result is what we expected.
2. It became clear, however, that revised forms are not always preferred, with some traditional forms showing a statistically significant tendency to be prefereed. For example, äÆ (the traditional form) 81% is in contrast to Ï¶ (the revised form) 19%. (Both äÆ and Ï¶ mean basket''.)
The results show that, in the case of the college students, when all of the following three conditions are met, the students will tend to prefer traditional to revised form.
1. Neither of rht forms (revised or traditional) are in the Joyo kanji list,
2. The frequency of occurrence of the traditional form is high,
3. The difference in shape between the forms is notable.
This tendency may be influenced by the degree to which they feel familiar with each kanji form. Therefore, the factor of familiarity will have a serious effect on kanji usage.

2. Classification:
Report
Author: KAGEURA Kyo
Title:
The Effect of Intra-Term Morphological Coherence on the Growth Curve of Morphemes in Terminology
Pages:
311 - 323
Descriptors:
terminology; growth of morphemes; urn model; intra-term coherence; binominal distribution

3. Classification:
Note
Author:
MIZUTANI Sizuo
Title:
Fundamentals of Sampling with Equal Probability and without Replacement
Pages:
324 - 326

4. Classification:
Miscellaneous
Title:
Proceedings of the 42nd Annual Meeting
Pages:
327 - 342

5. Classification:
Miscellaneous
Title:
Descriptors and Abstracts
Pages:
343

## Vol. 21 No. 8 (Mar. 15, 1999)

1. Classification:
Paper
Author:
MIZUTANI Sizuo
Title:
Case-combination Patterns in Japanese Novels 1948-1992
Pages:
345 - 360
Descriptors:
novel; predicate kernel; substantive; adverb; case-combination pattern; case element; cluster sampling; estimation precision of occurrences; coverage rate; estimation of the total number of patterns
Abstract:
This paper surveyed case-combination patterns occurred in 74 novels of famous writers by a 5% sample (its size: 3646 examples) drawn from an anthology. Considering Japanese cases, it is the noteworthy fact that cases are not inflection of substantives nor only verbs can function as predicates. Even an adverb can be a predicate, if it belongs to a certain more refined word class, and some grammatical devices other than particles called "case-markers" can behave apparently like case-markers on certain conditions --- in the sense that they can sometimes adjoin to case-elements without any case-markers. They are not case-markers in themselves, nevertheless neglection of such uses cannot cause enough recognition of the matter. Thus, the present author's basis must differ from usual valency theory. Methodological discussions are given in the beginning parts of the paper, through specification how to make data. Secondly an outline of statistical results of the survey was described. For instance, 290 patterns were found in the sample, furthermore the total number of patterns in the universe was estimated as 346.91 ± 3.92 by curve fitting of K=l(1-exp[-an])+c; where K is the expectation of different number of patterns in the sample at running number n of examples; l, a and c are parameters and K \rightarrow L (=l+c) when n \rightarrow \inf . Of course, we can obtain the value of L with its standard error by Deming's least-square method. Lastly, merits of new approach are discussed based on results of the survey, and which is more adequate for Japanese. The notion < deep case > is useless in such disposition. This paper also contains both the list of 7 cases with 35 refined items applied to this survey and the frequency list of whole patterns found in the sample.

2. Classification:
Paper
Author:
Title:
On the Case Marker Representing the Agent of the TEMORAU Benefactive Construction
Pages:
361 - 375
Descriptors:
temorau benefactive construction; agent; kara (case marker); case frame; transference
Abstract:
This paper discusses the condition for selecting the kara case which represents the agent in the temorau benefactive construction, utilizing the data obtained from research carried out bu questionnaire of over 150 native speakers of Japanese.

The occurrence of kara in the temorau construction is generally understood to represent the transference of some concrete or abstract thing(s) from agent to beneficiary. As a result of the research mentioned above, this paper, however, will reveal that there are two parameters instead of one in the choice of kara as case marker for the agent in the temorau benefactive construction.

One of these parameters is determined by the case frame of the embedded verb, i.e. when the verb does not require the participant to become the beneficiary in the temorau construction in either the ni or o case, then kara is not applicable. The other parameter concerns the transference of some concrete or abstract thing(s) between agent and beneficiary, i.e. when the verb requires the beneficiary in its case frame, kara can be used, but only when such a transference exists, otherwise it cannot be used.

Three more subsidiary conditions, i.e. plurality of the agent, causativity of the temorau auxiliary verb, and the directness of the construction, are observed to function to accept kara case.

3. Classification:
Report
Author:
SUZUKI Kanae, SAKAMOTO Akira
Title:
The Words Used in the Person Description; Age and Sex Differences
Pages:
376 - 393
Descriptors:
person description; developmental change; sex differences

4. Classification:
Miscellaneous
Title:
Descriptors and Abstracts
Pages:
343

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