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Vol. 31 No. l
(June, 2017)
Vol. 31 No. 2
(Sep., 2017)
Vol. 31 No. 3
(Dec., 2017)
VOl. 31 No. 4
(Mar., 2018)
VOl. 31 No. 5
(June, 2018)
Vol. 31 No. 6
(Sep., 2018)
Vol. 31 No. 7
(Dec., 2018)
Vol. 31 No. 8
(Mar., 2019)

Vol. 31 No. 1 (June 25, 2017)

  1. Classification:
    Paper (B)
    Author:
    HONDA Yumiko
    Title:
    Transparency of Two-Character Sino-Japanese Words: Analysis of Words and Component Characters Based on a Corpus
    Pages:
    1--19
    Keywords:
    two-character Sino-Japanese words, kanji, transparency, three groups, Balanced Corpus of Contemporary Written Japanese (BCCWJ), Japanese dictionary, Japanese-Language Proficiency Test (JLPT), Japanese language education, Japanese native speaker
    Abstract:
    This paper aims to show the quantitative transparency tendency of two-character Sino-Japanese words and to obtain useful information for teaching Japanese language through a survey and analysis of high frequency words in the written language. The transparency degree of two-character Sino-Japanese words is divided into three groups: transparent, half-transparent, and opaque. For examining transparency, descriptions of words in Japanese dictionaries are used to retain the objectivity of examining. The survey results indicate the following:
    1. Each group accounts for a ratio of high frequency words;
    2. The ratio of transparent words is higher in the intermediate and above intermediate levels than in the elementary level for words appearing in the Japanese-Language Proficiency Test. However, the ratio of opaque words is higher in the elementary level than in the intermediate and above intermediate levels.
    3. The survey results obtained from using description of words in Japanese dictionaries have similarities to those obtained from using questionnaires to Japanese university students.
    Therefore, in this paper, the quantitative transparency tendency is useful information for teachers in considering contents of teaching two-character Sino-Japanese words.
  2. Classification:
    Paper (B)
    Author:
    TAMAOKA Katsuo
    Title:
    Investigation of the Similarity between Newspaper Corpus and Native Speakers' Production in Collocation Patterns of Sound-symbolic Words and Verbs
    Pages:
    20-35
    Keywords:
    sound-symbolic words, onomatopoeia, collocation pattern, entropy, redundancy, newspaper corpus, native speaker’s production
    Abstract:
    Newspapers articles are written by reporters for the general public, so provide accurate information using simple standard expressions. However, it is not clear whether written texts in newspapers reflect typical language production by native speakers. It is assumed that mature native Japanese speakers produce various sound-symbolic words--such as onomatopoeia and mimesis, which are cultivated through childhood experience--with various related verbs. The present study investigated the similarities of collocation patterns for 28 different sound-symbolic words co-occurring with verbs, by comparing nine years of Asahi Newspaper articles (1991-99) with verbal production by 36 native Japanese speakers within 30 seconds. No significant differences were found in either the variation criterion of entropy or the regularity criterion of redundancy for collocational patters between newspaper corpus and native speakers’ production. The result indicated a great similarity between newspaper corpus and native speakers. Exceptional words were only found in 4 out of 28 sound-symbolic words from the descriptive perspective.
  3. Classification:
    Resource
    Author:
    HIGUCHI Koichi
    Title:
    Using KH Coder in the Field of Linguistics
    Pages:
    36-45
    Keywords:
    KH Coder, content analysis, linguistics, parts of speech
    Abstract:
    The author introduces how to perform statistical analysis of textual data in an automated and effective way by utilizing a free software “KH Coder” in the field of linguistics. First, the major functionalities and philosophy of the KH Coder are explained to provide an overview of the software. The KH Coder was originally developed to perform analysis in the field of sociology or social research rather than that of linguistics. Because the KH Coder was developed in a different discipline, this overview will help with understanding its function and how to actually use it as applied to linguistics. Second, procedures for customizing the KH Coder settings are described to demonstrate how it will be more useful in the field of linguistics. For example, with the default settings, the KH Coder ignores all function words such as particles or auxiliary verbs, and focuses only on content words. To analyze function words, the parts of speech setting needs to be modified. Additionally, we can modify the word extraction setting to manually correct morphological analysis results to increase their accuracy.
  4. Classification:
    Author's Book Review
    Author:
    ITO Masamitsu
    Title:
    Studies of Japanese Linguistics Employing Lyrics of J-pop Songs: For an Development of the Artificial Intelligence with a Function of the Creative Writing. Asakura Shoten
    Pages:
    46-47
  5. Classification:
    TUTORIAL
    Author:
    OGINO Tsunao
    Title:
    Data Visualization (9): How to Output Image File from Pascal Program to LIPS Printer
    Pages:
    48-59
    Keywords:
    LIPS, printer, command, Pascal, unit
    Abstract:
    This paper explains my Pascal program which generates an image file (including printer commands) for Canon's LIPS printers. This program thus enables the users to print out all the varieties of outputs. The program is coded as a unit in Pascal language and can be used by various user programs. This paper also introduces two application programs (1) to draw a rectangle graph based on some crosstable, and (2) to draw isoglosses in a linguistic map based on a tentative algorithm.

Vol. 31 No.2 (Sep. 20, 2017)

  1. Classification:
    Paper (A) to the Special Issue
    Author:
    OYAMADA Yuki
    Title:
    Study of the Functional Verb of the Passive Voice: Focusing on the Comparison of atsumeru and kurau
    Pages:
    84-98
    Keywords:
    functional verb, passive voice, periphrastic passive, BCCWJ, continuity from the concrete noun to the event noun, writing style, animate, inanimate, sentiment polarity
    Abstract:
    This study examines the functional verbs of the passive voice. Functional verbs of the passive voice do not seem to have the same function, but considered to have their unique characteristics. Therefore, I try to clarify the difference in characteristics of functional verbs by investigating their descriptions in dictionaries and the corpus. I first investigate the characteristics of functional verbs by conceptual consideration, then I perform quantitative consideration based on the result. In the quantitative consideration, three following viewpoints were useful; distribution of the functional verbs from the appearance field, noun part of the functional verb, and combination of the nominative and the active subject. By the above-mentioned consideration, the difference in characteristics of functional verbs such as the passive type, the characteristic of the noun part, the writing style and the sentiment polarity became clear.
  2. Classification:
    Invited Paper (B) to the Special Issue
    Author:
    ISHIKAWA Shin’ichiro
    Title:
    Semantic Role of the Case Particle de in Modern Japanese: A Corpus-based Approach to the Improved Usage Description and Verification of the Radial Category Model
    Pages:
    99-115
    Keywords:
    case particle, semantic role, collocation, cognitive linguistics, semantic expansion, correspondence analysis, cluster analysis
    Abstract:
    Although semantic roles of the Japanese case particle de have been studied from varied angles, relatively few studies have attempted to incorporate a quantitative approach into examination of its usage. The author, therefore, conducted a quantitative analysis of the Balanced Corpus of Contemporary Written Japanese (BCCWJ) and assigned twenty-four semantic role codes to seven hundred text samples taken from the corpus. Then, the author investigated (1) what kind of features each of the twenty-four semantic roles had, (2) how often each of them occurred in the attested data, (3) how they were classified, and (4) to which extent each of them deviated from the prototypical semantic role. The frequency-based investigation has proven that (1’) each semantic role is embodied by a highly limited set of collocating nouns, (2’) place-related semantic roles occur most often, and they are followed by measure/ situation-related semantic roles, (3’) semantic roles can be classified into a core group (place, measures, reasons, state) and the others, and (4’) the distances from the prototype are roughly in accordance with those suggested in the radial category model.
  3. Classification:
    Invited Paper (B) to the Special Issue
    Author:
    LEE Jaeho & HASEBE Yoichiro
    Title:
    Extraction of Grammatical Items Using N-grams and Its Validation Based on Learner Corpus
    Pages:
    116-127
    Keywords:
    function expression, N-gram, educational grammar, learner corpus, frequency analysis
    Abstract:
    In this paper, we extract grammatical items using N-grams and show that grammatical items or functional expressions can be taught efficiently by extracting expressions using the word N-grams from the corpus. First, we review the literature on corpus and grammar research from the viewpoint of Japanese language education. Then, we examine the collocation expression list of Lee & Sasaki (2015) and construct a functional expression list. For the purpose of verifying the validity of these extracted functional expressions, we have compared them with the frequency data of YNU corpus. The result indicates that the numbers of intermediate-level functional expressions tend to increase as learning proficiency increases. we argue that analyzing quantitatively learner corpora enables us to grasp the whole picture of the learner language.
  4. Classification:
    Paper (B) to the Special Issue
    Author:
    LIU Xueqin & JIN Mingzhe
    Title:
    Quantitative Analyses of Koji Uno’s Works before and after the Illness
    Pages:
    128-143
    Keywords:
    Koji Uno, mental illness, writing style, quantitative analysis
    Abstract:
    This manuscript aims to clarify the changes of Koji Uno’s writing styles after he suffered mental illness in 1927. In order to understand the differences in Uno’s works before and after his illness, a quantitative analysis using correspondence analysis and statistical hypothesis testing was employed. By analyzing the textual measurements, we found that his writing style after recovering from the illness is different from the previous. Both the frequency of Chinese characters and the vocabulary richness increased in the works written after the illness. These results, after further analysis, mainly consist of an increase in the use of nouns in later writings. Consequently, the overall writing style changed from spoken to written language. Furthermore, the overuse of the comma has an impact on the loss of the garrulity and fluency, which led to the changes in the style of the writings after the illness. Additionally, the work named ‘Nichiyobi ’ which had been published before the disease treatment is more similar with the works written after recovering, indicating that the writing style had been changed even before the illness.
  5. Classification:
    Paper (B) to the Special Issue
    Author:
    ARAI Teiko, BUNJI Kyosuke, ISHIHARA Yuki, MATSUZAKI Takuya & KAGEURA Kyo
    Title:
    Complexities of Text from the Points of View of Lexical and Syntactic Characteristics: Quantitative Analysis of Linguistic Features of Primary School Textbooks
    Pages:
    144-159
    Keywords:
    textbook, word familiarity, dependency, learning gap
    Abstract:
    This paper analyses linguistic features of primary school textbooks for the penultimate and final grades (grades five and six) and junior high school textbooks for the first and second grades (grades one and two), in order to reveal factors affecting the so-called “primary-secondary” learning gap. We chose science textbooks and analysed their complexities from the points of view of lexical and syntactic characteristics. The analysis revealed that there is a clear gap in syntactic complexities of sentences between primary and secondary school textbooks. The analysis showed that the factors constitute the gap between primary and secondary school textbooks.
  6. Classification:
    Paper A
    Author:
    NISHINA Kikuko, YAGI Yutaka, HODOŠČEK Bor & ABEKAWA Takeshi
    Title:
    Construction of a Connectives Dictionary for Academic Writing Assistance System
    Pages:
    160-176
    Keywords:
    Writing Assistance System, Japanese language learners, conjunction, connectives, academic papers and assignment report, register, Balanced Corpus of Contemporary Written Japanese (BCCWJ), science and technology texts data, UniDic, Japanese connectives list
    Abstract:
    We aim to construct an academic writing assistance system for learners of Japanese as a second language who are tasked with writing academic papers and reports during the course of their studies. We propose to provide suggestions for rewriting inappropriate expressions within learner compositions using a dictionary and a method of comparing learner composition text data to authentic corpus data. From among many possible language elements, this paper focuses on defining connective expressions and the construction of a connectives expression dictionary. Beginning with a definition of connectives based on their role in text, we select 568 connective expressions using a combination of manual selection and automated extraction, and demonstrate the importance of the automatic approach as well as its weaknesses.
    Next, we manually annotate the connective expressions with ratings on their suitability to be used in the academic register. Finally, we show the possibilities of the resulting connectives dictionary in providing guidance to learners in the appropriate selection of connective expressions within the academic register.
  7. Classification:
    Book Review
    Author:
    MABUCHI Yoko
    Title:
    TANAKA Makiro ed. (2015). Corpus and Education of Japanese as the Mother Language. Series of the Japanese Corpus, vol. 4. Tokyo: Asakura Shoten.
    Pages:
    177-183

Vol. 31 No.3 (Dec., 20th, 2017)

  1. Classification:
    PAPER A
    Author:
    ONO Yohei,YOSHINO Ryozo,HAYASHI Fumi,WHITMAN John
    Title:
    A Multiple Correspondence Analysis of the Latent Structure of Features in Linguistic Typology (1): A Statistical Reanalysis of Tsunoda, Ueda, and Itoh (1995a)
    Pages:
    189-204
    Keywords:
    adpositionless,clustering,Genitive-Noun,head-initial,head-final,language typology,linguistic classification,multiple correspondence analysis,Noun Phrase internal,word order
    Abstract:
    This paper uses Multiple Correspondence Analysis (MCA) to re-analyze the linguistic data studied in Tsunoda, Ueda, and Itoh (1995a). Tsunoda et al. (1995a) applied cluster analyses to the word order parameters in Tsunoda, Ueda, and Itoh’s (1995b) database and identified as the main component the word order parameter category “prepositional,” thus positing a basic dichotomy between prepositional languages versus adpositionless and postpositional languages. We reanalyze the same data using MCA, together with certain clustering techniques, applied to both the languages and the linguistic parameters in Tsunoda et al.'s (1995b) database simultaneously. This approach confirms the significance of word order parameters involving adposition but suggests a reconsideration of Tsunoda et al.'s (1995a) classification. We find a dichotomy between a cluster of “head-initial” (prepositional, verb-object, and noun-genitive) parameter categories versus a cluster of “head-final” (postpositional, object-verb, and genitive-noun) parameter categories similar to those often grouped together by linguists on the basis of informal cross-linguistic observations. We also find that Noun Phrase internal word order parameters, excepting parameter governing the order of noun and genitive,cluster separately from the others.
  2. Classification:
    PAPER A
    Author:
    MORI Hideaki
    Title:
    Comparing the Usage Rate of a Word between Two Corpora: Which should We Use as an Observation Unit (Case), a Word or a Text?
    Pages:
    205-221
    Keywords:
    corpus, chi-square test, observation unit, text frequency, effect size
    Abstract:
    If any differences are found in the usage rate of a word between two corpora, the common method to verify them is to conduct a chi-square test using word frequencies. However, when an assumed word is used as an observation unit, there is criticism that it does not to meet the assumption of randomness underlying the statistical test. Basically, the choice of words and their regularity depends on the author's judgment. In comparing the usage rate of a word, texts that reflect the author's judgement, rather than the individual words should be observed as the observation units. In this paper, we propose an analytical method using a text as the observation unit to compare the usage rate of a word between two corpora. Differences of the usage rate of a word can be explained by the differences in the text frequency distribution. Furthermore, using text frequencies to perform a chi-square test makes it possible to effectively demonstrate the degree to which the text distribution varies between two corpora based upon their effect size. In comparing the usage rate of a word, therefore, we should consider the text rather than the word as an observation unit.
  3. Classification:
    REVIEW
    Author:
    TOJO Kana
    Title:
    TANOMURA Tadaharu (ed.) (2014). Corpus and Japanese Linguistics. Series of the Japanese Corpus, vol.6. Tokyo: Asakura Shoten.
    Pages:
    222-226
  4. Classification:
    TUTORIAL
    Author:
    NAGATA Mizue
    Title:
    Recent Methods of the Questionnaire Research with the Large Sample Size (1): The Problems Posed by Refusal to Research Cooperation: Consideration about the Problems of Recent Increasing the Rate of Refusal to Research Cooperation
    Pages:
    228-243
    Keywords:
    Research Ethics, Research Cooperation, Refusal to Research Cooperation, Problems Posed by Refusal to Research Cooperation, Protection of Research Cooperation
    Abstract:
    In recent years, the rate of refusal to research cooperation appears to be increasing in the field of psychology. Hence, this paper aimed to examine the actual state of research cooperation by comparing journals of psychology published in 2006 and 2016 with regard to the procedures for collecting research collaborators and the rate of cooperation acceptance. The results suggest that most journals did not have a description on procedures that gathered research collaborators, and the actual condition of refusal to research cooperation was not clarified. On the basis of these considerations, the problems posed by refusal to research cooperation were examined and a method to secure research collaborators to gather as many biased data as possible was proposed.

Vol. 31 No.4 (Mar, 20, 2018)

  1. Classification:
    PAPER A
    Author:
    ONO Yohei,YOSHINO Ryozo,HAYASHI Fumi, & WHITMAN John
    Title:
    A Multiple Correspondence Analysis of the Latent Structure of Features in Linguistic Typology (2): A Statistical Reanalysis of Tsunoda, Ueda, and Itoh (1995a)
    Pages:
    261-280
    Keywords:
    adpositionless,clustering,Genitive-Noun,head-initial,head-final,language typology,linguistic classification,multiple correspondence analysis,Noun Phrase internal,word order
    Abstract:
    This paper uses Multiple Correspondence Analysis (MCA) to re-analyze the linguistic data studied in Tsunoda, Ueda, and Itoh (1995a). Tsunoda et al. (1995a) applied cluster analyses to the word order parameters in Tsunoda, Ueda, and Itoh’s (1995b) database and identified as the main component the word order parameter category "prepositional," thus positing a basic dichotomy between prepositional languages versus adpositionless and postpositional languages. We reanalyze the same data using MCA, together with certain clustering techniques, applied to both the languages and the linguistic parameters in Tsunoda et al.'s (1995b) database simultaneously. This approach confirms the significance of word order parameters involving adposition but suggests a reconsideration of Tsunoda et al.'s (1995a) classification. We find a dichotomy between a cluster of "head-initial" (prepositional, verb-object, and noun-genitive) parameter categories versus a cluster of "head-final" (postpositional, object-verb, and genitive-noun) parameter categories similar to those often grouped together by linguists on the basis of informal cross-linguistic observations. We also find that Noun Phrase internal word order parameters, excepting parameter governing the order of noun and genitive,cluster separately from the others.
  2. Classification:
    PAPER B
    Author:
    SAYAMA Kohichi
    Title:
    How Differently Postposition ni and e in Newspaper Headings Are Comprehended?
    Pages:
    281-296
    Keywords:
    grammar, syntax, postposition, newspaper, headline
    Abstract:
    Some literature on Japanese grammar has argued that Japanese postpositions ni and e are not differentially comprehended by native Japanese speakers reading sentences that include these postpositions. Other Japanese grammar books, however, explain that ni and e have clearly different meanings. This study was designed to ascertain whether Japanese readers can, in fact, distinguish between ni and e during sentence comprehension. Two experiments were conducted in which news headings were presented with or without ni or e, or after interchanging ni and e. Participants read the headings silently, or read them aloud, while the reading time was measured. The results of silent reading indicated no evidence that participants consciously differentiated between ni and e. The results of oral reading, however, indicated that participants took significantly longer for reading headings when e was replaced by ni than when reading the corresponding original headings. These findings indicated that participants experience difficulty in inferring meaning due to the replaced postposition, ni. It is concluded that native speakers can comprehend the difference between ni and e, especially when they read headings.
  3. Classification:
    Author's Book Review
    Author:
    LEE Jae-Ho:
    Title:
    The Science of Measurement and Evaluation of Text. Hitsuji Shobo.
    Pages:
    297-298
  4. Classification:
    TUTORIAL
    Author:
    MATSUDA Eiji
    Title:
    Recent Methods of the Questionnaire Research with the Large Sample Size (2): Issues of Telephone and RDD Surveys: How to Deal with Coverage and Nonresponse Errors
    Pages:
    299-314
    Keywords:
    telephone survey, landline, cell/wireless phone, response rate, coverage error, nonresponse error, sampling error, measurement error
    Abstract:
    Early telephone surveys were conducted by selecting samples from telephone directories and public registers. Due to errors in survey results caused by under-coverage of individuals not listed in telephone directories, telephone survey methodology changed from the original list-assisted model to Random Digit Dialing (RDD). Surveys for samples added cell phone numbers are able to cover cell-phone-only (CPO) individuals, which now includes many young and middle-aged persons. The downsides to mobile surveys are that they have a very low response rate, and that in Japan it is difficult to obtain proper regional information from a telephone number. This article offers information to aid in the process of deciding whether or not to use telephone surveys.

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