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V-te-oruin the Minutes of the National Diet of Japan since 1947
(-te) oruas they appear in the official records of the Japanese Diet since 1947. The results showed a general tendency in which the use of
-te irugradually replaced that of
te-oru.The data also showed a remarkable difference in the speed of the shift between the polite style (
-te iru) and the non-polite style (
te-oru), as well as in the past, present, and negative forms of the non-polite style.
ordinary person) as an example, I disserted about social connotation, which is one kind of connotation of a word closely related to denotation. Social connotation refers to the connotation attached to a word due its discursive use, which is a reflection of the way the object it stands for is perceived in the society. As already proposed on Kang (2009), by applying the following three steps sampling method -- extraction of the discursive meaning -> extraction of the discursive meaning tendency -> extraction(assumption and confirmation) of the social connotation -- on a newspaper corpus (understood here as a collection of discourses), and using the collocation FUTSU NO HITO as an example, I demonstrated that its social connotation is polysemous, and, furthermore, that its polysemy is originated in the relativity of the denotation, as shown as follows.
1. Analyzing a newspaper corpus of six years, it was possible to identify seven different discursive meaning tendencies for the collocation FUTSU NO HITO: (1) -- people who suffered some kind of damage or influence from war, misgovernment, accidents; (2) -- people who do not have expertise, understanding or interest in any specific subject, and therefore are not capable of professional judgment or actions; (3) -- people who do not have any kind of particular or unusual characteristic, who behave and make choices normally; (4) -- people who are aware of and respect the common sense and morality; (5) -- people who are healthy both mentally and physically, being able to lead regular lives; (6) -- people who lead steady lives; (7) -- people who do not have any special or unusual ability, appearance or experiences.
2. We can infer that the seven discursive meaning tendencies above make
and maintain three social connotation with different valuation as
follows: (2)(3)(7) - implies that
being ordinary could be negatively accepted;
(4)(5)(6) - implies that
being ordinary could be positively accepted;
(1) - implies that
being ordinary could be sympathetically accepted.
3. The social connotation of FUTSU NO HITO is polysemous because the denotation of
being considered ordinary in some aspect is relative.
If a comparison is made between a FUTSU NO HITO and an expert of some kind or a person of unusual ability, the social connotation in which
being ordinary could be negatively accepted comes out. On the other hand, if an ordinary person is compared to somebody considered
in some way, either in health or moral precepts, a criminal or someone
who is not capable of leading a steady life, the social connotation in
being ordinary could be positively accepted presents
itself. These opposite social connotations are based on the relativity
of excellence and inferiority that occurs in the denotation of FUTSU NO HITO.
Moreover, by comparing the FUTSU NO HITO
to politicians, industrialists or great leaders of the financial world,
who are considered being powerful figures, the ordinary person appears
as a weaker existence, and then the social connotation in which
being ordinary could be sympathetically accepted arises. This is the relativity of strength and weakness in the denotation of FUTSU NO HITO.
In tandem with creating the tagged corpus, we also developed a KWIC tool for retrieving information from our corpus. The tool was developed on Microsoft Excel so that it can be easily downloaded and executed by a wide range of researchers. In addition, any search results can be saved as a spreadsheet for further analyses. Our data and tools have been made available online in order to stimulate corpus-based studies on second language acquisition and related fields.
oin public opinion polls
o, go; real time; apparent time; repetitive survey; age grading;late adoption
apparent timeis important, and attention should also be paid to age grading phenomenon and late adoption.
In this study, the so-called honorific or beautifying prefix
is investigated. In order to observe linguistic variation in real time,
data from opinion polls carried out by the Agency for Cultural Affairs
of the Ministry of Education over one decade was analyzed. Many words
o were found to increase in use over one decade. This tendency suggests that the function of
o has changed from
honorific prefix to
beautifying prefix. The data sorted according to frequency of use showed that words with
o form a continuum, and that the use of
increased over the decade. As expected, large gender differences were
seen. Age-grading and late adoption were also observed, with a highest
o as a beautifying prefix being seen by
housewives in the 30 to 40 age group. Further study to investigate the
historical process of the increase in use of the beautifying prefix
o was advocated.
Word List by Semantic Principles
Nature and Natural Phenomena-bodyin
Word List by Semantic Principles, Revised and Enlarged Edition(The National Institute for Japanese Language) were counted and aggregated into subcategories. The result shows that the vocabulary used to refer to the upper or front parts of the body has a higher frequency and is of a greater variety than that used to refer to the lower or back parts of the body. A similar inequality is found between the words used for the outside and inside of the body. Moreover, while the body words that were considered fundamental across genre were identified, some words displayed a peculiar distribution that can be characterized as being the feature of the analyzed text.
Multimedia corpusis a database which enables two-way search for not only language data, but for a situation video and sound as well. For the present research
Multimedia corpus of television broadcasts(Ishii, 2009), enlarged by the author of the paper, was used.
The research indicated that there exists relation between the mimeticity of onomatopoeia (Tamori and Schourup 1999) and the co-occurrence rate of gestures, i.e. the higher mimeticity of onomatopoeia is, the more frequently these words are accompanied by gestures. This is a new discovery concerning onomatopoeia and gestures relation. This discovery shows the necessity to revise the results presented in Kita (1997, 2002) who studied the relation of onomatopoeia and iconic gestures collectively, and at the same time proves the usefulness of multimedia corpus-based expressive behavior studies.
In the future, improvement of multimedia corpus used in this paper will make it possible to conduct various researches other than mimeticity study, and thus more thorough analysis of not only onomatopoeia and gesture relation, but of other expressive behavior constituents relations is expected to be rendered possible.
Kotonoha, this paper explores the differences between jokyo and jotai in semantic and syntactic properties. The results revealed that jokyo is dynamic state-oriented in meaning and more of a substantive word in function than jotai, while jotai is static state-oriented in meaning and more of a functional word than jokyo. Although jokyo and jotai share similar properties, the data showed a remarkable difference between them. The utilization study proved effective in discriminating between highly synonymous abstract nouns like jokyo and jotai.
Introduction to Syntactic Analysis. A Valency approachby Thomas Herbst / Susen Schuller,
Theoretische und praktische Aspekte eines Valenzmodells In Gerhart Helbig (Hrsg,) Beitrage zur Valenztheorieby Gerhard Helbig
Taro(male proper noun),
Hanako(female proper noun). They then rated their impression of the speaker on the basis of the
Big Fivepersonality traits (extroversion, neuroticism, openness, conscientiousness, and agreeableness). The results of the examination indicated the following: (1) The differences of first-person pronouns affected the impression of the speaker's conscientiousness and agreeableness but not his/her extroversion, neuroticism, and openness; and (2) the influence of first-person pronouns differed according to the speaker's sex and age.
attitude-- i.e. the criteria based on emotion;
judgement-- i.e. the criteria based on morality and ethics, and
appreciation--i.e. the criteria based on aesthetics, importance and effectiveness, the judgement is often expressed implicitly in comparison to the appreciation.
Verb + DAKEDA. JL often use
Noun + DAKEDA.
structural analysis method in each semantic field, I intend to search for characteristics of structure of Japanese vocabulary by extracting synonyms in the common semantic field between Japanese vocabulary and Chinese vocabulary and comparing their measurement. At first, from Japanese vocabulary and Chinese vocabulary I selected fifteen semantic fields at each part of speech. Then, in each semantic field, calculating the total number of synonyms, the rate of synonyms in each word structure, and the rate of Japanese in each word class, I considered characteristics of Japanese vocabulary.
As an example of this analysis, I found out that Japanese had more nouns about weather, a life tool, and geographical features than Chinese because Japanese had many compound words and phrases, and that the semantic fields which had high rate of words of Japanese origin were action verb and sense adjective.
To solve these two problems, we research 847 glyphs written only one in Lunyu of Kaicheng stone classics (Kaicheng Lunyu). To research the difference between early Tang standard of writhing and Kaicheng standard, we compared glyphs written Kaicheng Lunyu with that of three early Tang court manuscripts. Similarly, we compared glyphs written Kaicheng Lunyu with that of eight Song printed works to research the adoption of the Kaicheng standard as the Song printed standard. Through this research, the conclusions of two problems are: