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The results of the analysis are the following.
Firstly, I pointed out that these expressions vary and will be classified into 8 types:
I chose 14 novels written by Haruki Murakami, 23 translated novels (14 novels originally written by Raymond Carver, and 9 novels originally written by others) and 39 novels written by other Japanese writers and then calculated the rates of appearance of parts of speech (RAPS), the rates of appearance of them just before the ``Toten'' which is the pause in the middle of sentence in Japanese(RAT), the rates of particles just before the ``Toten''(RPT), and 10 indexes (the rates of a noun, the rates of demonstrative, the length of sentence, the rates of conversation sentence, etc.)
According to the analysis by using RAPS the differences could be observed in the style of sentences between original and translated ones. However according to the analysis by using RAT and RPT the differences couldn't be observed except for novels written by Raymond Carver. In conclusion, there are some differences about RAPS between original and translated novels, while how to use the ``Toten'' is dependent on the consciousness of the translator.
Analysis by using 10 indexes was effective to grasp the characteristics of sentences about Haruki Murakami, but it wasn't effective to distinguish between original and translated novels.
There are three purposes for this research:
The usage investigation was done by using written materials which quoted spoken language. Furthermore, the questionnaire investigation for the young generation groups was done in four areas. Conclusions are as follows:
In the case of Korean, the vertical relation by age or the social status is most thought as important in ``the way of speaking regarded as right.'' The point of thinking the vertical relation by age or the socia1 status as important is almost the same also in ``a usual way of speaking.'' The influence of uchi-soto to the degree of politeness is not seen at all.
On the other hand, in the case of Japanese, in ``the way of speaking regarded as right,'' the vertical relation by age is thought most as important, also taking into consideration a uchi-soto relation and a social status. Howeverˇ¤by ``a usual way of speaking,'' a uchi-soto relation and a relative degree of intimacy relation serve as a key factor which determines the degree of politeness.
As a result, it became clear that: