|Vol. 17 No. l
|Vol. 17 No. 2
|Vol. 17 No. 3
|Vol. 17 No. 4
|Vol. 17 No. 5
|Vol. 17 No. 6
|Vol. 17 No. 7
|Vol. 17 No. 8
As materials, 122 novels of series ``Onihei Hankatyoo'' by Ikenami Syootaroo, in Bunsyun Libray (18 vols. published already) were taken, since a lot in the Edo Period. The result obtained from a random sample of 24 works amounted to 3.518+1.504% with confidence probability 0.95, therefore it can not be said that occurrences of the subjects are negligible as exceptional events. Numbers of such imperatives per work follows approximately to Polya-Eggenberger distribution. The 122 examples of such kind found in the whole 122 works are listed up at the end of this paper. If the notion of ``zero case-marker'' was accepted, then some ten examples could be added besides, though they were omitted in this survey for the sake of clearness. Notice that 35 examples have their subjects of the third person.
In addition, vocatives appended to imperatives are not to be interpreted as semantic substitutes for subjects. An evidence of inadequacy of such interpretaion is given from the statistical point of view.
Examples are classified by their grammatical forms into three groups: The subject is represented by (1) [noun phrase] ga (22 examples), (2) [noun phrase] wa (73 examples), or (3) [noun phrase] mo (27 examples).
As a rule, the first form is exerted in the case to choose the person(s) to obey the order among people possible to do so. The second form is exerted in the case to specify the very person referred to by the subject to do a certain act, mostly in contrast with (an)other person(s) to be requested some different act(s), especially to assign him/her/them some task. The third form is exerted in the case that, at the stage someone does, did or is going to do an act, the addressee(s) is/are also to be asked to do the same (sort of) act.
The system was developed with the following considerations in mind;
(1) Conversion of clause-final predicates
(2) Conversion of polite verbs
Two problems still remain. One is the conversion of conjunctions such as desukara, desuga, etc. The other concerns by examining accompanying homonymous verb forms; this may be facilitated by examining accompanying postpositions.
|men||for a flat and relatively large surface|
|mai||for a flat, thin object|
|hon||for a long, this object, or an object of enormous scale inside|
which there is no human activity
|ko||for a solid object with a fixed shape and certain weight capable|
of existing on its own
|tsu|| for both concrete and abstract nouns without any specific criterial|
capable of replacing ko in many cases,
unnatural for prototypes of mai and hon
As a preparatory analysis, we had 74 readers choose Haikus which each reader felt were agreeable from a collection of 232 Haikus and defined the number of readers who chose each Haiku as the degree of liking. According to this analysis, we defined l 6 Haikus which more than 9 readers selected as Haikus with high liking, and 24 Haikus which none of the readers selected as Haikus with no liking. We chose 8 Haikus respectively from these two groups of Haikus as the stimuli of the experiment. We divided each Haiku stimulus into its component words. Forty students rated the degree of relatedness between the words of each Haiku. Half of the subjects rated the 8 Haikus with high liking, and the other half rated the 8 Haikus with no liking.
We averaged relatedness scores for each Haiku between subjects after averaging the averaged relatedness scores for each component word. There was no difference between Haikus with high and no liking. This result showed that the degree of liking of a Haiku was not determined by the relatedness score as a whole. However, we also compared the score of word relatedness for a Kigo with a whole relatedness score. This analysis showed that all components of a Haiku were related to a Kigo, and Haikus in which the components were strongly related to a Kigo were liked by many readers.
Back to Homepage